Linux内核下网卡硬件 MAC 和PHY分析笔记

1 简介

通常CPU自带的以太网接口是MAC控制器,为了实现完整的功能,外围硬件还需要增加一个PHY芯片。

PHY芯片在建立网络连接时负责协商确定网速、全双工 或者 半双工等。在正常通讯时负责在MAC控制器的MII信号 与 网线中的信号之间做转换。

本文的内核代码主要来自kernel-5.4.18

2 PHY芯片 和 MDIO bus

2.1 简介

Most network devices consist of set of registers which provide an interface to a MAC layer, which communicates with the physical connection through a PHY.

The PHY concerns itself with negotiating link parameters with the link partner on the other side of the network connection (typically, an ethernet cable), and provides a register interface to allow drivers to determine what settings were chosen, and to configure what settings are allowed.

                                《Documentation/networking/phy.rst》

2.2 驱动分析

2.2.1 数据结构

struct phy_device;
struct phy_driver;

struct class mdio_bus_class;
struct bus_type mdio_bus_type;
struct mii_bus;
struct mdio_device;
struct mdio_driver;

 

2.2.2 mii_bus、phy_device 和 mdio_device 的初始化

mdiobus_register();
    -> __mdiobus_register();     
        -> mdiobus_scan();       
            -> get_phy_device();
                -> get_phy_id();
                    -> mdiobus_read();
                -> phy_device_create();
            -> phy_device_register();
                -> mdiobus_register_device();

struct mii_bus表示一个mdio bus,mdiobus_register()函数用来向内核注册一个mdio bus。在注册mdio bus时会扫描这个mdio bus上连接的所有phy芯片。

一个mdio bus上最多可以连接32个phy芯片,每个phy芯片都有一个唯一的总线地址。驱动代码会通过唯一的总线地址去读取phy芯片的ID,如果在某个总线地址上读到了ID,就意味着发现了一个phy芯片。

发现phy芯片后,会调用phy_device_create()函数创建struct phy_device和struct mdio_device对象,然后调用phy_device_register() 和 mdiobus_register_device()函数向内核注册device。

在注册phy_device后,会遍历内核中的phy_driver,通过结构体中成员变量phy_id来配对。

2.2.3 通⽤phy驱动

//drivers/net/phy/phy_device.c
static struct phy_driver genphy_driver = {
    .phy_id     = 0xffffffff,
    .phy_id_mask    = 0xffffffff,
    .name       = "Generic PHY",
    .soft_reset = genphy_no_soft_reset,
    .get_features   = genphy_read_abilities,
    .aneg_done  = genphy_aneg_done,
    .suspend    = genphy_suspend,
    .resume     = genphy_resume,
    .set_loopback   = genphy_loopback,
};


2.3 查看系统下的相关信息

2.3.1 查看设备和驱动的信息:/sys/bus/mdio_bus/

# ls /sys/bus/mdio_bus/drivers
'Broadcom BCM84881'  'Generic Clause 45 PHY'  'Generic PHY'

2.3.2 设备类信息:/sys/class/phy/

2.3.3 mdio bus的统计信息:/sys/class/mdio_bus/<bus>/statistics/  (kernel-5.6以后的内核才有)

# ls /sys/class/mdio_bus/fixed-0/statistics/
errors     errors_18  errors_28  reads     reads_18  reads_28  transfers     transfers_18  transfers_28  writes     writes_18  writes_28
errors_0   errors_19  errors_29  reads_0   reads_19  reads_29  transfers_0   transfers_19  transfers_29  writes_0   writes_19  writes_29
errors_1   errors_2   errors_3   reads_1   reads_2   reads_3   transfers_1   transfers_2   transfers_3   writes_1   writes_2   writes_3
errors_10  errors_20  errors_30  reads_10  reads_20  reads_30  transfers_10  transfers_20  transfers_30  writes_10  writes_20  writes_30
errors_11  errors_21  errors_31  reads_11  reads_21  reads_31  transfers_11  transfers_21  transfers_31  writes_11  writes_21  writes_31
errors_12  errors_22  errors_4   reads_12  reads_22  reads_4   transfers_12  transfers_22  transfers_4   writes_12  writes_22  writes_4
errors_13  errors_23  errors_5   reads_13  reads_23  reads_5   transfers_13  transfers_23  transfers_5   writes_13  writes_23  writes_5
errors_14  errors_24  errors_6   reads_14  reads_24  reads_6   transfers_14  transfers_24  transfers_6   writes_14  writes_24  writes_6
errors_15  errors_25  errors_7   reads_15  reads_25  reads_7   transfers_15  transfers_25  transfers_7   writes_15  writes_25  writes_7
errors_16  errors_26  errors_8   reads_16  reads_26  reads_8   transfers_16  transfers_26  transfers_8   writes_16  writes_26  writes_8
errors_17  errors_27  errors_9   reads_17  reads_27  reads_9   transfers_17  transfers_27  transfers_9   writes_17  writes_27  writes_9

文件内容说明:

                                《Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-mdio(kernel-5.6)》

2.4 mdio bus调试:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/events/mdio/mdio_access

__mdiobus_read();
    -> trace_mdio_access();

__mdiobus_write();
    -> trace_mdio_access();

3 MAC 与 PHY之间的网络数据接口(各种MII)

3.1 数据结构

//include/linux/phy.h
struct phy_device {
    ......
    phy_interface_t interface;
    ......
};
//include/linux/phy.h
/* Interface Mode definitions */
typedef enum {
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_NA,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_INTERNAL,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_MII,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_GMII,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_SGMII,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_TBI,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_REVMII,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_RMII,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_RGMII,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_RGMII_ID,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_RGMII_RXID,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_RGMII_TXID,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_RTBI,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_SMII,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_XGMII,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_MOCA,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_QSGMII,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_TRGMII,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_1000BASEX,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_2500BASEX,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_RXAUI,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_XAUI,
    /* 10GBASE-KR, XFI, SFI - single lane 10G Serdes */
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_10GKR,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_USXGMII,
    PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_MAX,
} phy_interface_t;

3.2 在设备树中指定使用哪种MII

3.2.1 设备树属性“phy-mode” 和 “phy-connection-type”

可选的属性值

//Documentation/devicetree/bindings/net/ethernet-controller.yaml

      - internal
      - mii
      - gmii
      - sgmii
      - qsgmii
      - tbi
      - rev-mii
      - rmii

      # RX and TX delays are added by the MAC when required
      - rgmii

      # RGMII with internal RX and TX delays provided by the PHY,
      # the MAC should not add the RX or TX delays in this case
      - rgmii-id

      # RGMII with internal RX delay provided by the PHY, the MAC
      # should not add an RX delay in this case
      - rgmii-rxid

      # RGMII with internal TX delay provided by the PHY, the MAC
      # should not add an TX delay in this case
      - rgmii-txid
      - rtbi
      - smii
      - xgmii
      - trgmii
      - 1000base-x
      - 2500base-x
      - rxaui
      - xaui

      # 10GBASE-KR, XFI, SFI
      - 10gbase-kr
      - usxgmii

3.2.2 获取“phy-mode” 和 “phy-connection-type”属性的函数

of_get_phy_mode();
    -> of_property_read_string(np, "phy-mode", &pm);
    -> of_property_read_string(np, "phy-connection-type", &pm);

 3.3 RGMII信号中的 delay

The Reduced Gigabit Medium Independent Interface (RGMII) is a 12-pin
electrical signal interface using a synchronous 125Mhz clock signal and several
data lines. Due to this design decision, a 1.5ns to 2ns delay must be added
between the clock line (RXC or TXC) and the data lines to let the PHY (clock
sink) have enough setup and hold times to sample the data lines correctly. The 
PHY library offers different types of PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_RGMII* values to let 
the PHY driver and optionally the MAC driver, implement the required delay. The 
values of phy_interface_t must be understood from the perspective of the PHY 
device itself, leading to the following:

* PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_RGMII: the PHY is not responsible for inserting any 
  internal delay by itself, it assumes that either the Ethernet MAC (if capable
  or the PCB traces) insert the correct 1.5-2ns delay

* PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_RGMII_TXID: the PHY should insert an internal delay
  for the transmit data lines (TXD[3:0]) processed by the PHY device

* PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_RGMII_RXID: the PHY should insert an internal delay
  for the receive data lines (RXD[3:0]) processed by the PHY device

* PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_RGMII_ID: the PHY should insert internal delays for 
  both transmit AND receive data lines from/to the PHY device

Whenever possible, use the PHY side RGMII delay for these reasons:

* PHY devices may offer sub-nanosecond granularity in how they allow a
  receiver/transmitter side delay (e.g: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5ns) to be specified. Such
  precision may be required to account for differences in PCB trace lengths

* PHY devices are typically qualified for a large range of applications
  (industrial, medical, automotive...), and they provide a constant and 
  reliable delay across temperature/pressure/voltage ranges

* PHY device drivers in PHYLIB being reusable by nature, being able to
  configure correctly a specified delay enables more designs with similar delay
  requirements to be operate correctly

For cases where the PHY is not capable of providing this delay, but the
Ethernet MAC driver is capable of doing so, the correct phy_interface_t value
should be PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_RGMII, and the Ethernet MAC driver should be
configured correctly in order to provide the required transmit and/or receive
side delay from the perspective of the PHY device. Conversely, if the Ethernet
MAC driver looks at the phy_interface_t value, for any other mode but
PHY_INTERFACE_MODE_RGMII, it should make sure that the MAC-level delays are
disabled.

In case neither the Ethernet MAC, nor the PHY are capable of providing the
required delays, as defined per the RGMII standard, several options may be
available:

* Some SoCs may offer a pin pad/mux/controller capable of configuring a given
  set of pins'strength, delays, and voltage; and it may be a suitable
  option to insert the expected 2ns RGMII delay.

* Modifying the PCB design to include a fixed delay (e.g: using a specifically
  designed serpentine), which may not require software configuration at all.

                                《Documentation/networking/phy.rst》

3.4 查看当前系统下MAC和PHY之间正在使用的是哪种MII

/sys/class/mdio_bus/<bus>/<device>/phy_interface

                                《Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-class-net-phydev》

3.5 特殊用法:两个MAC控制器通过MII直连,不经过PHY芯片

在这种情况下因为没有PHY芯片,硬件上无法通过协商确定网速、全/半双工等状态信息,需要通过其他方式来获取这些信息,请看下面的“fixed-link”相关的章节。

4 物理链路的状态

4.1 简介

网络物理链路状态在发生改变时,需要确定 UP/DOWN、网速、全双工还是半双工等关键状态信息。

多数时候网络物理链路的状态是通过phy硬件协商确定的,还有另一种方法就是直接指定物理链路的状态。

在某些特殊的硬件设计中,直接将两个MAC控制器的MII信号直连,不使用PHY芯片,这导致硬件无法协商确定物理链路状态,这种情况下也需要直接指定物理链路状态。

4.2 通过phy芯片获取物理链路状态

4.2.1 状态处理工作项

在创建phy_device时会创建工作项,处理函数是phy_state_machine();

phy_device_create();
    -> INIT_DELAYED_WORK(&dev->state_queue, phy_state_machine);

 

4.2.2 向内核添加工作项

轮训模式:
        当phydev->irq == PHY_POLL时,采用轮训模式,轮训间隔是1秒,轮训间隔由宏 PHY_STATE_TIME 控制。


中断模式:

phy_request_interrupt();
    -> request_threaded_irq(phydev->irq, NULL, phy_interrupt, ...);

phy_interrupt();
​​​​​​​    -> phy_trigger_machine();

4.3 Fixed MDIO bus

4.3.1 简介

内核配置:CONFIG_FIXED_PHY

MDIO Bus/PHY emulation with fixed speed/link PHYs
Adds the platform "fixed" MDIO Bus to cover the boards that use PHYs that are not connected to the real MDIO bus.

                                drivers/net/phy/Kconfig

4.3.2 初始化

static int __init fixed_mdio_bus_init(void)
{
    struct fixed_mdio_bus *fmb = &platform_fmb;
    int ret;

    pdev = platform_device_register_simple("Fixed MDIO bus", 0, NULL, 0);
    ......
    snprintf(fmb->mii_bus->id, MII_BUS_ID_SIZE, "fixed-0");
    fmb->mii_bus->name = "Fixed MDIO Bus";
    fmb->mii_bus->priv = fmb;
    fmb->mii_bus->parent = &pdev->dev;
    fmb->mii_bus->read = &fixed_mdio_read;
    fmb->mii_bus->write = &fixed_mdio_write;

    ret = mdiobus_register(fmb->mii_bus);
    ......
}
module_init(fixed_mdio_bus_init);

4.3.3 查看系统下的Fixed MDIO bus信息

/sys/class/mdio_bus/fixed-0/
/sys/bus/platform/devices/Fixed\ MDIO\ bus.0/

 

4.4 通过设备树节点“fixed-link”指定物理链路的状态

4.4.1 设备树“fixed-link”节点的属性

"full-duplex"
"speed"
"pause"
"asym-pause"
“link-gpios”

含义如下(Documentation/devicetree/bindings/net/ethernet-controller.yaml)

          properties:
            speed:
              allOf:
                - $ref: /schemas/types.yaml#definitions/uint32
                - enum: [10, 100, 1000]
              description:
                Link speed.

            full-duplex:
              $ref: /schemas/types.yaml#definitions/flag
              description:
                Indicates that full-duplex is used. When absent, half
                duplex is assumed.

            asym-pause:
              $ref: /schemas/types.yaml#definitions/flag
              description:
                Indicates that asym_pause should be enabled.

            link-gpios:
              maxItems: 1
              description:
                GPIO to determine if the link is up

4.4.2 对应的数据结构

struct fixed_phy_status {
    int link;
    int speed;
    int duplex;
    int pause;
    int asym_pause;
};

4.4.3 获取设备树中“fixed-link”内容的代码

of_phy_register_fixed_link();
    -> fixed_phy_register();
        -> __fixed_phy_register();

4.5 通过ethtool命令设置物理链路状态

例如:ethtool -s enp0s31f6 speed 100 duplex full autoneg off

内核中对应的代码:struct ethtool_ops->set_link_ksettings();

4.6 查看网络物理链路的状态信息

方法一、ethtool enp0s31f6

方法二、
                /sys/class/net/<net_dev>/duplex
                /sys/class/net/<net_dev>/speed

相关推荐

  1. Linux 内核PHY子系统(网络):PHY驱动

    2024-06-09 01:40:03       11 阅读
  2. Linux 内核PHY子系统(网络):MDIO 总线

    2024-06-09 01:40:03       9 阅读
  3. linux内核网络分析 用户空间工具 “每日读书”

    2024-06-09 01:40:03       16 阅读

最近更新

  1. 【gdb使用】

    2024-06-09 01:40:03       0 阅读
  2. nginx入门与实践

    2024-06-09 01:40:03       0 阅读
  3. 深入理解 JVM 的几种常见垃圾回收算法

    2024-06-09 01:40:03       0 阅读
  4. Aeron:Online Resources

    2024-06-09 01:40:03       0 阅读
  5. 安卓gradel下载失败解决方案

    2024-06-09 01:40:03       0 阅读
  6. 实战

    实战

    2024-06-09 01:40:03      0 阅读

热门阅读

  1. 【C/C++】相机标定

    2024-06-09 01:40:03       6 阅读
  2. ffmpeg视频编码原理和实战-(4)H264原始码流分析

    2024-06-09 01:40:03       5 阅读
  3. MATLAB 匿名函数

    2024-06-09 01:40:03       4 阅读
  4. GPT-4o的崛起:人工智能新纪元的开端

    2024-06-09 01:40:03       4 阅读
  5. 一千题,No.0049(跟奥巴马一起编程)

    2024-06-09 01:40:03       7 阅读
  6. 一些关于机器学习的思路和猜测

    2024-06-09 01:40:03       5 阅读
  7. Python代码——压缩整个文件夹

    2024-06-09 01:40:03       5 阅读
  8. rust结构体

    2024-06-09 01:40:03       5 阅读